Knife Attack in Hamburg – Self-Defence Aspects and Conclusions
About the Author: Ulf Meierkord was born in 1963. He lives and works in Hamburg, Germany. He has studied law and business administration and holds a 2nd dan in shotokan karate. His interests include sport shooting, history and martial arts in general.
On Friday, 28th July 2017, around 3 o`clock p.m., a man with a kitchen knife killed one person and injured seven in Hamburg. Before the police arrived, he was confronted, pursued and overpowered by a group of civilians who have meanwhile been commended for their courage by the mayor. Part of the altercation can be viewed on a YouTube video. This provides us with the rare opportunity of observing the dynamics of fighting against a knife-wielding assailant. Furthermore, the attack occurred in a part of Hamburg which I have been familiar with since childhood. I have travelled past what has become a crime scene at least once a week for the past forty years. I can therefore provide information and background not available from the media.
In this essay, I intend to describe the actual fight in as much detail as possible in order to draw conclusions as to an advisable course of action when defending against a knife attack. However, I will not restrict myself to the fight proper. I will also report on the background of events and on the person of the assailant because I want to paint a complete and accurate picture that will permit readers to draw their own conclusions. Things do not happen in a vacuum. The precise addresses of where the incident took place will permit readers to use a map for further information. And by relating the known facts about the assailant, I just follow Sun Tsu's recommendation that one should know one's enemy.
I have drawn information from news media (online and print) which I consider reliable sources. I am not a journalist and have not done any fact gathering myself apart from having a look at the crime scene. Where sources contradict each other, I have given official sources or the testimony of my own eyes the benefit of the doubt.
In other words: Almost all of the information presented will be second hand. My conclusions will inevitably involve lots of guesswork and conjecture. Much of it will be open to discussion and I strongly encourage the readers to contribute to such a discourse.
There is one caveat, though:
Let me elucidate: Various facts (which I will deal with later) have led the Federal Prosecutor General to treat the knife attack as an act of islamist terrorism. This might politicize any discussion in a way that would be unthinkable in the case of, e.g., a botched robbery ending in murder. Especially, the hotly debated topic of foreign immigration will raise its head. However, this essay is on self-defence against a knife attack. Therefore, the discussion must focus on this topic.
I want to be blunt here: This is not the place to discuss whether Angela Merkel should have received a medal or a prison sentence for the way she handled the refugee crisis in 2015. This is not the place to discuss whether people should be forbidden to carry so much as a hair pin in public or be allowed to openly carry every weapon known to mankind short of tactical nukes. And this is most certainly not the place to discuss the merits or dangers of any religion whatsoever.
If you want this sort of discussion, go elsewhere. I have done my best to keep my own political views in check. I ask you to do the same.
Before you post anything, just ask yourself one question:
“Does what I am going to say have at least the potential to help someone fighting for his life against a knife attack?”
If the answer is “yes”, go ahead an post. If the answer is “no”, well, don't.
Background: Crime Scene and Surroundings
The attack occurred in part of Hamburg called Barmbek. I have lived in the general neighbourhood for most of my life. And I am 54 years old.
Barmbek has traditionally been and still is a low-income-neighbourhood inhabited by blue-collar workers and lower-echelon office workers. Unemployment is below the city average. The archetypical housing in Barmbek was built shortly after the last war. It is four stories high, made of red brick and contains simple rented apartments of two or three rooms. In recent years, some efforts have been made to “upgrade” Barmbek, but it is light years away from having been gentrified. At the end of 2016, the percentage of people with a migration background (foreigners, naturalized immigrants and their children) was a little below the city average: around 26% as opposed to 34% for Hamburg overall.
I have seen a few fights since I moved into my present apartment about fifteen years ago. They were few and far between. Nobody was seriously hurt. The persons involved were ineffective idiots.
I would like to characterize Barmbek like this: Barmbek is colourful, but not an ethnic ghetto. It is not a rich part of town, but it is not a crime-ridden social hotspot, either. You can walk the streets safely at night, not in the least because there will be nobody in the street. Night-life is negligible. Therefore, you are not particularly likely to be assaulted in Barmbek. However, if you assault someone, you are more likely to meet with determined resistance than in some of the posher neighbourhoods of Hamburg.
Much of the incident took place on Fuhlsbüttler Straße. It is the main thoroughfare in Barmbek connecting the north of Hamburg with the center. It features apartment buildings, shops, restaurants, and a hospital. Several bus lines travel up and down this street.
The supermarket where one man was murdered is situated on Fuhlsbüttler Straße 186. It belongs to a chain called EDEKA which has a lot of outlets in Germany. It is not known for low prices.
The bus stop where the assailant got on a bus (and then got off again) is called Hermann-Kaufmann-Straße. It is situated right next to the supermarket
The Assailant: Ahmad Alhaw
Alhaw was born in the UAE in 1990 or 1991. He is a Palestinian. In 2009, he travelled from Egypt to Norway where he sought recognition as a refugee and was eventually refused. He spent two years in Sweden with a brother living there. He also spent some time in Spain before returning to Norway. He speaks rather good English. According to some reports, he is also fluent in Norwegian and Swedish.
He came to Germany seeking asylum in April 2015 – before the massive influx of the refugee crisis beginning later that year. He lived in Dortmund (North Rhine-Westphalia) first and was then relocated to Hamburg where he lived in a home for asylum seekers and refugees in a part of Hamburg called Ochsenzoll, situated close to a metro station going by the name of Kiwittsmoor. In order to reach the part of Barmbek in question here, one must take the metro to Ohlsdorf station and change onto a bus. The entire trip takes about 30 minutes.
The immediate neighbourhood of Kiwittsmoor station does not offer much in the way of shopping. However, there are many shops where one can buy groceries that are much closer to Kiwittsmoor station than Barmbek. I have been to some of them. It appears that Alhaw had a certain preference for Barmbek. He went to a local hairdresser and claims to have prayed at a local mosque several times.
In April 2016, a friend of Alhaw reported to the police in Hamburg that Alhaw was showing increasing signs of islamic radicalization and of mental instability. He had used to consume drugs, to party a lot and not displayed any religious tendencies. He had always been a loner, though. Now he was cutting himself off more and more. He (more or less) abstained from drugs. He dressed in religious clothes, recited the Qur'an in a loud voice and shouted “Allahu Akbar” on occasions without apparent reason.
For unknown reasons, the authorities got a wrong name. It took until November before the domestic intelligence service of Hamburg (“Landesamt für Verfassungsschutz”) interviewed Alhaw. They reached the conclusion that he was mentally unstable, an islamist (i. e. a radical) but not a jihadist (i. e. not a potential terrorist). In other words, they did not assess him as a threat. However, they suggested that his state of mental health should be checked by a medical professional. This never happened.
Alhaw's application for asylum was rejected because he had already been turned down in Norway, where he arrived first and which observes the rules of the EU Dublin Regulation although not a EU member. Furthermore, his claim that Hamas had threatened him when he lived in Gaza was most probably a lie. The authorities could have then summarily deported him to Norway where he had come from but they failed to meet the deadline for that. This was the time when immigration authorities were swamped by the refugee crisis.
Later, he could not be deported for lack of the proper documents. This is not atypical in such cases. Atypically though, Alhaw never appealed the authorities' decision. On the contrary, he cooperated with the authorities in obtaining the documents necessary for his deportation from the Palestinian mission in Germany. He probably would have left the country shortly.
Alhaw's criminal record contains only one instance of shop-lifting. The case never went to trial because it was considered insignificant. When the police searched his room after the knife attacks, they found a small, apparently hand-made flag of the “Islamic State”. No personal links to known terrorists or jihadist circles have been discovered so far. Alhaw allegedly prayed several times at the Assahaba – mosque situated on Mildestieg 2, about 200 m from the crime scene, which banned a preacher from teaching because he was a radical in 2015.
It stands to reason that Alhaw acted alone.
Alhaw entered the supermarket shortly before 15:00 to buy some groceries (perhaps a loaf of toast). Afterwards, he left the supermarket and waited at the bus stop Hermann-Kaufmann-Straße close by. At 15:08, he got on the outbound bus no. 172. However, he got off before the bus left and returned to the supermarket. He took a kitchen knife with a 20 cm blade from its display, removed the wrapping and immediately stabbed a 50-years-old man in the back numerous times. This man died in the supermarket. Alhaw then stabbed and seriously injured another man in the supermarket. Upon leaving, he screamed “Allahu Akbar” and stabbed a 19-years-old third man standing in the entrance area, injuring him seriously. This victim had to undergo emergency surgery.
Toufiq Arab, a 21 year old apprentice who had come from Afghanistan and had been granted asylum in 2012, was working at a cash point, when he heard screams. He hurried to the scene of the crime and saw Alhaw stabbing people. He tried to take the knife away and failed. When Alhaw fled, Arab pursued him onto the street. There, he shoved a elderly lady back into a bus that had just arrived and warned the other passengers not to get off.
Outside the supermarket, Alhaw attacked and injured a man and a woman working on their bicycles. He used the knife on the man, but not on the woman. Afterwards, he crossed the street and attacked a 64-years-old man with his knife, causing serious injuries. Later, he attacked a woman on her bicycle. He did not use his knife on her, either.
Meanwhile, in a street café across the street from the supermarket, a panicked woman informed several men about the situation. Jamel Chraiet, 48, of Tunisian origin, later told in an interview that he and his countrymen quickly conferred and decided to do something. They picked up some chairs and went after Alhaw. These five men knew each other from attending services at the mosque on Mildestieg (see above).
Together with Toufiq Arab the confronted and pursued Alhaw. The tried to talk to him, asking him to put down the knife. They did so in German at first and then in Arabic. Alhaw told them to leave him alone, that he had did not wish to fight them. He only wanted to kill Christians. The group was later joined by two other men. Ömer Ünlü, 35 years, of Turkish origin and father of four children, jumped out of his car to join the fray. Sönke Weber, 28 years, has a hairdresser's shop on Fuhlsbüttler Straße. He also pursued Alhaw but appears not to have taken part in the actual fighting. He is the only one without a migration background among those who interceded.
The group confronted Alhaw, harrying him, keeping him busy and away from other people and drove him southward. They used chairs, rocks and and at least one iron bar which might originally have served to support a grocery store's awning. Eventually, the altercation ended on Hellbrookstraße 46, a street crossing Fuhlsbüttler Straße about 350 m south of the supermarket.
Ömer Ünlü explained in an interview that after several rocks hat been thrown without effect, he managed to hit Alhaw on the back of his head with a rock. Alhaw went down and lost his knife. Ünlül struck him in the head several times with the iron bar, swinging it so hard he dislocated his own shoulder. He later said that all had gone “black” at that moment. Alhaw was then restrained and kept down until the police arrived.
The police had been called at 3:11 pm, one minute after the assault began. Two minutes later, plain clothes detectives arrived at the scene of the altercation. They cleared the rather chaotic situation and the area by firing a warning shot and handcuffed Alhaw.
Upon his arrest and in later testimony, Alhaw made several claims: He wanted to be treated as a terrorist. He wanted to kill as many Christians and adolescents as possible and had been willing to die for his cause. He expressed regret that he had not used a car and had therefore not been able to kill more people.
Alhaw has been jailed and is awaiting trial for one count of murder and five counts of attempted murder. The Federal Attorney General has assumed jurisdiction of the case as Alhaw's actions are considered an act of terrorism. This implies that they presume Alhaw to be clinically sane and therefore legally responsible. However, the state of Alhaw's mental health is bound to be looked into as part of the trial.
These are the facts as I could gather them from various media. However, there are several gaps or discrepancies which I did not manage to clarify, namely
1. I am not sure that the seven known “heroes of Barmbek” (as the press soon called them) were the only persons involved. The congregation of the mosque on Mildestieg honoured five of their members for their heroism. However, not all of those five belong to the group of seven later honoured by the city government. One news report mentions a black African and a Tunisian who wanted to remain anonymous. Maybe someone made a mistake. Maybe someone walked away without leaving any contact data. I do not believe it makes much of a difference for the purpose of this essay.
2. While I managed to find a possible source for the iron bar used in the altercation, I have not been able to find out where the rocks thrown at Alhaw came from. There are no rocks along Fühlsbüttler Straße because, I presume, sooner or later some drunken idiot would do something stupid with them.
3. I could not ascertain when precisely the last victim, the woman on the bicycle, was attacked. According to the government press conference, she was attacked on Schwalbenstraße which enters Hellbrookstraße, but not where the altercation ended. If this is true, she must have cycled right into the fight which then moved into the opposite direction.
4. It appears that the two women among the victims were, although injured, not attacked with the knife. Not all media reports agree on this point. And the government press conference is not conclusive as to the second victim. So perhaps, Alhaw was not willing to stab a woman. Or he was and did. Or it was just a coincidence. I cannot tell.
Assessment of the Altercation
I will assess the combative effectiveness of both Alhaw and his opponents, i.e. their ability to achieve their respective objectives. In order to do so, I will judge their actions attributing between zero and four points for each of the following parameters:
● Attitude: Does the person in question have what it takes to do the job in terms of courage, presence of mind and ruthlessness?
● Strategy: Is there a plan? And if so, of what quality? Does it use resources efficiently? Are there preparatory steps? Are contingencies taken into account? Is the plan robust or overly complex?
● Tactics: What methods are used following the overall strategy in order to achieve the objective? Are they suitable? Adaptable? Easy or difficult?
● Technique: Has the person in question had any martial arts, combat sports or combatives training? Zero points would mean a person without training or experience, four points a highly trained fighter with lots of practical experience.
● Equipment: Which weapons are used?
○ bare hands: 0 points
○ blunt impact weapons: 1 point
○ edged weapons: 2 points
○ handguns: 3 points
○ vehicles and military grade weapons like bombs or assault rifles: 4 points.
● Numerical superiority: The number of combatants on each side is taken into account but not by simple multiplication with the number of people involved as superior numbers take some skill to actually take advantage of.
Assessment of Alhaw
Alhaw wanted to kill as many Christians and adolescents as possible.
The one person whom Alhaw managed to kill was the most defenceless because he was the first person to be attacked and because Alhaw came from behind in a surprise attack. It is difficult, if not impossible to tell why Alhaw did not manage to kill anybody else with a 20 cm blade. Perhaps all the other men whom he stabbed were simply lucky but this appears unlikely in view of five such cases. I suspect that Alhaw was too much in a hurry and therefore sloppy. He did not make sure that he had achieved his objective. Fortunately, the human body has a lot of redundancies and modern medicine can work miracles.
Furthermore, Alhaw was not prepared to kill indiscriminately. Possibly, he spared women. When confronted by other muslims, he did not engage. Whether this was out of respect for a shared faith or fear for his own safety is impossible to tell. I suspect that both motives played a role. At any rate, when confronted, Alhaw flinched. I therefore seriously doubt he was really willing to lay down his life for his belief.
1 point for attitude.
It appears that the idea to go on a killing spree came at an afterthought to Alhaw, no matter how insane this seems. There is no other explanation for his utter lack of preparation. He even had to get off that bus in order to re-enter the supermarket for the knife. Outside the supermarket, potential victims could run away. And he chose a part of town where lots of muslims live (as witness the number of women with head scarves in the streets).
0 points for strategy.
Alhaw only used one tactic worthy of the name: He attacked the first victim from behind, taking advantage of the element of surprise. Once this advantage was gone, he went on an indiscriminate (and then fortunately unsuccessful) killing spree.
1 point for tactics (and that is generous).
In the video, Alhaw shows no combative or martial skill whatsoever. I could find no reference to any act of violence before he started stabbing people. Neither is there any information about relevant prior training.
0 points for technique.
Alhaw used a large knife.
2 points for equipment.
Assesment of the civilian first responders
They wanted to protect others from Alhaw's murderous assault. And in later interviews, some of them stated that they could not let somebody commit murder in the name of their religion.
These men were willing to risk their lives for strangers. The had the presence of mind to quickly confer and to use the means at hand effectively. And they were determined enough not to let up until the matter had been brought to a conclusion.
4 points for attitude.
The civilians went about it rather cleverly. They kept Alhaw away from other potential victims and from themselves. They did not engage at close quarters until a good opportunity occurred. Only one of them suffered an injury, and it was self-inflicted. On the other hand, their formation was rather loose and it was never tested by aggressive attacks from Alhaw.
3 points for strategy.
The civilians used weapons of opportunity either to maintain distance, to harry, to distract or to attack from a distance. They covered for each other when one of them was in danger. When attacking in earnest, they went for the head. There was no unarmed combat until Alhaw was down and without his knife. There were no concerted attacks until that moment, though.
3 points for tactics.
None of the civilians showed any sign of martial or combat technique in the videos available. No such training was mentioned in any report. However, at least in the case of Ömer Ünlü, I am not sure about the absence of training and experience. He gave an interview surrounded by a group of friends. They call themselves “Barmbek Boys”. They all looked rather fit and rough. On the other hand, he did hurt himself swinging an iron bar, which does not indicate a lot of skill or experience at least at the crucial moment.
0 points for technique.
The civilians used chairs, rocks and at least one iron rod.
1 point for equipment.
It is difficult to tell how much this group was more effective than the sum total of its parts or even how many “parts” there were during various phases of the altercation. However, the group obviously functioned very effectively and protected its members. On the other hand, they never trained as team for combat.
I would therefore take their number of seven into account with a conservative factor of three.
Civilian First Responders
Kill as many Christians and adolescents as possible.
Protect others and their religion
It was not just their numerical superiority that made the civilians succeed. They were much more determined than Alhaw. They were protecting innocents and their faith. Alhaw only hated what was in front of him – for whatever inscrutable reason.
Furthermore, the civilians knew much better what they were about. Although they had less than a minute to prepare (if any time at all), they came up with a working strategy and tactics. In other words, their cooperation did not rely on verbal, explicit communication. And these people never trained to work as a combat unit. Yet, things went rather smoothly. I believe this is so because their plan of action is as old as mankind, actually older.
It is how I imagine a group of stone age hunters would have hunted down larger prey like a mammoth. They would keep their distance, harry and injure it with attacks from a distance (spears, arrows) and tire it out. They would only go in for the kill after it had gone down with fatigue and / or injury. Wolves and other pack hunters pursue a similar strategy. I am neither a zoologist nor an anthropologist. I can therefore only make a guess, but I would not be surprised if such strategy and tactics were part of human DNA.
I have gone out on limb here and would welcome input from real experts!
Finally, I do not wish to detract from the civilians' heroism, but I believe it is obvious that they were extremely lucky to face only one assailant who was woefully unprepared on all levels. I shudder to think what might have happened if they had encountered somebody more determined and skilled with a blade.
I believe one can draw a few useful conclusion from the horrible events in Barmbek:
1. Do not believe that even a terrorist is automatically fearless, ten feet tall and bullet proof. Not all terrorists are alike (or equally dangerous), but all are human. They can be injured. They can be frightened. They can be thwarted.
2. Do not believe that you necessarily have to defeat a terrorist. If you can keep him from hurting anyone until the police arrive, that is victory enough.
3. Do not hesitate, though, if a good chance to end the danger actually presents itself.
4. Do not believe that a knife injury is certain death. It is surely bad news, but in Barmbek, out of six people who were stabbed, five survived. Keep fighting (or running) even if you have been stabbed or cut.
5. Do not go in barehanded if you can avoid it. Use weapons of opportunity if you do not carry anything useful on your person.
6. Do not go in alone if you can avoid it. Fight with allies. There is strength in numbers.
7. Do not go in without a plan. However, even if you are not part of a group of trained combat professionals, there appears to be a default plan provided by evolution – the strategy of pack hunters: Keep your distance and harry until the time is right to engage at close quarters – or the police arrive. This presupposes, of course, that you are acting as part of group and not on your own.
8. Do not believe that prior training in martial arts, combatives etc. is necessary to fight effectively. A lack of technique can be compensated for by, among other things, attitude, strategy, tactics, equipment and numbers.
9. Do not neglect knife defence if you are serious about self-defence. Between January and July 2017, there were 31 cases of attempted murder in Hamburg and four cases of murder (including the attack in Barmbek). Only in one case resulting in death, a firearm (a sawed-off shotgun) was used. In 23 out of all 35 cases, the perpetrator used a knife. This includes the other three cases resulting in death.
A knife is the weapon one is most likely to face in a self-defence situation. Overall, it is not a likely thing to happen to anyone. And the recent terrorist attacks have not really increased the statistical probability thereof. They are meant to create fear, hatred and division far beyond their factual impact, as horrible as it may be, and they are doing an admirable job at this because the media naturally report so intensely on them. However, it is just what makes these attacks so effective on a psychological and political level which people like us, martial artists, can use to become better at defending ourselves and others.
After each such attack, there will be a plethora of reports, interviews, footage and other sources which will provide us with more and better knowledge about knife attacks than there has ever been available before. Martial artists can study this material, make the best of the information they gather from it – and adapt their training! Knowledge is the natural enemy of fear – of terror. It keeps things in perspective and improves our chances to fight back. Knowledge is power. Let us power up!
YouTube Video with relevant footage (one of many)
“Hamburg: Knife Attacker Bring chairs to a knife fight'”, 29th July 2017
YouTube Videos in English:
AFP news agency
“Hamburg supermarket attacker was 'known islamist': officials”, 30th July 2017
euronews (in English)
Exclusive: Eyewitness films capture of supermarket attacker”, 29th July 2017
FRANCE 24 English
“Germany: Hamburg police share details on knife attack”, 29th July 2017
“Hamburg stabbing attack: suspect is a '26-year-old asylum seeker from United Arab Emirates'”, 29th July 2017
“Male eye witness to Hamburg attack, complete translation”, 28th July 2017
“Hamburg Eye Witness female: Attacker shouted 'Allah hu ackbar', 28th July 2017
YouTube Videos in German:
“Flüchtling stoppt Messer-Angreifer in Hamburg – Das ist der Held”, 1st August 2017
(a report on Toufiq Arab, one of the civilian first responders)
“Helden von Hamburg – Sie stoppten den Attentäter”, 3rd August 2017
(a report on the the civilian first responders receiving a commendation)
N24 netzreporterin – Antje Lorenz
“Helden von Hamburg: 'Jeder einen Stuhl, dann sind wir los'”, 29th July 2017
(an interview with Jamel Chraiet, one of the civilian first responders)
“Messerattacke Hamburg: Pressekonferenz und Studiotalk mit Paul Elmar Jöris am 29.07.2017”, 31st August 2017
(press conference of the Hamburg Police Department, Office of the Prosecution and other authorities)
“Messerattacke in Barmbek: Hintergründe zum islamistischen Anschlag”, 4th August 2017
(a fairly good summary of the events)
“Hamburger Messerattentäter: Koran, Rauchen, Beten, Trinken, 7th August 2017
(a report on Ahmad Alhaw's increasingly erratic behavior and radicalisation before the attack)
“Exklusiv: Der Attentäter von Barmbek erzählt in einem Video seine Lebensgeschichte”, 11th August 2017
(a portrait of the Ahmad Alhaw as he was before he became a killer)
Spiegel Online (www.spiegel.de)
"Augenzeuge der Hamburger Messerattacke: 'Er hat auf fast jeden eingestochen, den er erreichen konnte", 29. July 2017
"Terrorism or Insanity? Attack Underscores Need To Address Refugees' Mental Health“, 10th August 2017
"The Knife Attack in Hamburg: Lone Actor Violence and Mental Illness“, 16th August 2017
Hamburger Abendblatt of 29th / 30st July 2017
“Mutige Barmbeker stoppen den Täter”, p. 11
“Video zeigt,wie junge Männer den Täter überwältigen”, p. 11
Hamburger Abendblatt of 31st July 2017
“Barmbek: Behörden wussten von der Radikalisierung des Angreifers”, p. 1
“Tödliche Fehleinschätzungen”, p. 2
“Ein labiler Islamist, der ausreisen sollte”, p. 9
“So lief die Bluttat in Barmbek ab”, p. 9
“Herr Polizeipräsident, was lief falsch?”, p. 10
“Ich habe nur meine Pflicht getan”, p. 11
“Die Verletzten des Angriffs sind außer Lebensgefahr”, p. 11
Hamburger Abendblatt of 1st August 2017
“Barmbek trauert – und sucht nach Antworten”, p. 11
Hamburger Abendblatt of 2nd August 2017
“Neuer Rekord bei Tötungsdelikten”, p. 11
“Messerstecher von Barmbek hatte IS-Fähnchen im Schrank”, p. 12
Hamburger Abendblatt of 3rd August 2017
“Vierfacher Vater wird zum Helden”, p. 11
Hamburger Abendblatt of 5th / 6th August 2017
“Moschee ehrt Helden von Barmbek”, p. 11
Hamburger Morgenpost of 31st July 2017
“Die Mulitkulti-Helden von Barmbek”, p. 2 – 3
“Ich zog ihm die Stange über den Kopf”, p. 2 – 3
“Das Versagen der Behörden”, p. 4
“Barmbeker Moschee verurteilt Anschlag”, p. 5
Der Spiegel 32 / 2017, 5th August 2017
“Der Terror wird hierherkommen”, p. 36 - 40
Der Spiegel 34 / 2017, 19th August 2017
Religionen: Wie Muslime damit umgehen, dass Attentate im Namen Gottes begangen werden - Fatih Kaba, 30“, p. 52
Die Welt Kompakt of 31st July 2017
“Die Helden von Barmbek”, p. 2 - 3
Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein (https://www.statistik-nord.de/)
Hamburger Stadtteil-Profile 2016 (statistical profiles of Hamburg city districts)
Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in den Hamburger Stadtteilen Ende 2016 (population with migration background in Hamburg city districts by the end of 2016)