Strength and conditioning is a term used to refer to building the athletic qualities of an athlete. There are many qualities, such as strength, power, flexibility, endurance e.c.t. but really they all come down to one thing. Making the athlete more powerful, without making them less able to susstain that power output (power and endurance being opposite ends of the same spectrum). The way training works is we put a stress upon our body, and in response to that out body adapts. The stress is called a training stimulus, and it sends a message to our body. 'we need to be stronger' or 'we need to be able to run faster'.
What happens then when we send our body mixed messages? If you are a beginner you will see results doing anything, but if you are an intermediate level athelet you will really need to focus your message. For example, if you are telling it to become more powerful (stronger) while also telling it to become more endurance ornented (doing lots of aerobic work) then it will do neither well. It has conflicting messages, and doesnt know what to do.
The way professional athletes overcome this is through periodization. They will list all the artibutes they need, and structure them so that they work on one at a time, building them so that they peak before an event. Sport specific training has greater carry over to the sport, but also wears out the body faster. Typically you will start with non-sport specific stuff. This is long aerobic runs and strength training. You might then move on to doing anaerobic training with sort of sport specific movements, targeting the main muscles, but not mimicing the motion, i.e. med ball twists. The last stage is where you focus right before an event, using sport specific training and power systems. If you do 3 x 3 min rounds, you should be doing 3 x 3 min rounds, with a sport specific exercise like pad work or heavy bag training. Periodization is a tried and tested method used by the majority, if not all, professional athletes and trainers out there.
The problem, then, is what if you need to be in a state of readiness all year long? What if you dont have the luxury of knowing when you will have to fight? What if you dont have the luxury of having an off period where you can work on the non-specific components? The only answers I have to that question at the moment are to either use periodization with very short cycles so you are never lacking one area too much, or to just train everything all the time. There must be a better answer, so I was wondering how you train for self defense in regards to your strength and conditioning work.